use these instead all based on natural (p-Menthàne-3,8-Diol) Lemon Scented Eucalyptus and MORE EFFECTIVE than DEET poison:
bug rr off http://buggrrroff.com.au/#home
Extract from above link
Why DEET-Containing Repellents Are Better Off Avoided
About 30 percent of Americans use DEET every year, but you should know that this chemical – though generally effective in keeping away insects – can have deadly repercussions. From 1961 to 2002, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry reports eight deaths related to DEET exposure.
Three of these resulted from deliberate ingestion, but five of them occurred following DEET exposure to the skin in adults and children.3 Psychological effects have also been reported including altered mental state, auditory hallucinations, and severe agitation.
In children, the most frequently reported symptoms of DEET toxicity reported to poison control centers were lethargy, headaches, tremors, involuntary movements, seizures, and convulsions.
Further, in a study of more than 140 National Park Service employees, 25 percent reported health effects they attributed to DEET, including:
Skin or mucous membrane irritation
Transient numb or burning lips
In addition, Duke University Medical Center pharmacologist Mohamed Abou-Donia spent 30 years researching the effects of pesticides. He discovered that prolonged exposure to DEET can impair cell function in parts of your brain — demonstrated in the lab by death and behavioral changes in rats with frequent or prolonged DEET use.
Other potential side effects DEET exposure include:
Muscle weakness and fatigue
Shortness of breath
Muscle and joint pain
The popular insect repellent deet is neurotoxic
03 Aug 2009
The active ingredient in many insect repellents, deet, has been found to be toxic to the central nervous system. Researchers writing in the open access journal BMC Biology say that more investigations are urgently needed to confirm or dismiss any potential neurotoxicity to humans, especially when deet-based repellents are used in combination with other neurotoxic insecticides.
Vincent Corbel from the Institut de Recherche pour le D¿veloppement in Montpellier, and Bruno Lapied from the University of Angers, France, led a team of researchers who investigated the mode of action and toxicity of deet (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). Corbel said, “We’ve found that deet is not simply a behavior-modifying chemical but also inhibits the activity of a key central nervous system enzyme, acetycholinesterase, in both insects and mammals”.
Discovered in 1953, deet is still the most common ingredient in insect repellent preparations. It is effective against a broad spectrum of medically important pests, including mosquitoes. Despite its widespread use, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the molecular level and its mechanism of action in insects. In a series of experiments, Corbel and his colleagues found that deet inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme – the same mode of action used by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. These insecticides are often used in combination with deet, and the researchers also found that deet interacts with carbamate insecticides to increase their toxicity. Corbel concludes, “These findings question the safety of deet, particularly in combination with other chemicals, and they highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of safer insect repellents for use in public health”.
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Non-toxic – how effective?
Eureka Natural Insect Repellent contains a balanced blend of Geranium and Lavender oils which are renowned for their kindness to skin and their midge and mosquito repelling qualities. It is based on an old oriental formula and it doesn’t contain any citronella, DEET or alcohol.
non toxic What are the ingredients?
With over 20 years experience in the industry, Xpel is a UK based company that provides affordable solutions to biting insects.
Some of these products have Picaridin (SALTIDIN) & Citriodiol
CARE PLUS http://www.purpleturtle.co.uk/acatalog/Care_Plus_Insect_Repellents.html
The Care Plus range of insect repellents includes s
omething for everyone – DEET lotions and gel, Picaridin (an effective alternative to DEET) and Citriodiol (a natural insect repellent derived from Lemon Eucalyptus Oil).
The EcoGuard range of insect repellents contain Saltidin (Icaridin) – an insect repellent that was developed as an effective alternative to DEET. Many people find it more pleasant to use than DEET as it is odourless with a light, clean feel.
Some below products MIGHT be ok – i have not looked at them
The Autan Tropical Insect Repellent Pump Spray contains Icaridin – an effective alternative to DEET that is more pleasant to use. It is also known as Saltidin or Picaridin and it is odourless with a light, clean feel.
Avon Skin So Soft is a dry oil body spray that many people swear by for dealing with midges. It isn’t intended for use as insect repellent in the UK but it does actually contain both Citronellol and Limonene which are used as ingredients in many insect repellents.
It’s also a very pleasant product to use – not suprising really given that it is part of the Avon Cosmetics range – and this may be the secret of its success: people don’t mind applying it in copious quantities, whereas more standard insect repellents might be used a little too sparingly.
Avon Skin So Soft is supplied in a 150ml pump action spray.
Ben’s Insect Repellent has a strong reputation and a loyal following throughout the world – particularly in the USA where Ben’s 100 has achieved almost cult status. The full range includes both DEET and natural insect repellent and After Bite is the product of choice for many travellers.
making the stuff para-menthane-3,8-diol
Method for producing para-menthane-3,8-diol
US 5959161 A
To offer a method of producing useful para-menthane-3,8-diol having the excellent repellent action to harmful living things, including noxious insects, in high purity and high yield, simply, and economically by the use of citronellal as a raw material compound.
The above-mentioned problems are resolved by the production method of this invention wherein citronellal is treated with aqueous sulfuric acid solution of 0.02 to 1.0 wt. % in concentration to produce para-menthane-3,8-diol. In case of recovering the produced para-menthane-3,8-diol, a method is preferably adopted, wherein after the reaction product is extracted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent of 5 to 8 in carbon number, the extract is cooled down at temperature higher than the melting point of said aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent and of -10° C. or less to crystallize para-menthane-3,8-diol.
review of repellents by:
Extract from above link
Plant-based repellents have been used for generations in traditional practice as a personal protection measure against host-seeking mosquitoes. Knowledge on traditional repellent plants obtained through ethnobotanical studies is a valuable resource for the development of new natural products. Recently, commercial repellent products containing plant-based ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers, as these are commonly perceived as “safe” in comparison to long-established synthetic repellents although this is sometimes a misconception. To date insufficient studies have followed standard WHO Pesticide Evaluation Scheme guidelines for repellent testing. There is a need for further standardized studies in order to better evaluate repellent compounds and develop new products that offer high repellency as well as good consumer safety. This paper presents a summary of recent information on testing, efficacy and safety of plant-based repellents as well as promising new developments in the field.