I have been using Mosi-guard.  I like it very much.  Now to discover if it is THE repellent i have been looking for. WHAT am i looking for?  Safe in every way and stronger than DEET!

Australian Stockists – phone first, as this list is not up-to-date.

Insect bites in the UK (and OZ)— identify what has bitten you with this ultimate guide

Mosi-guard reviews


mosiguard_main__34824.1383789874.1280.1280Mosi-guard Natural’s® ingredients

Full details of Mosi-guard Natural’s ingredients. This is important to people looking for a naturally and sustainably sourced insect repellent which is also a DEET free alternative to synthetic insect repellents.

Mosi-guard Natural® Spray ingredients

Mosi-guard Natural® spray is an oil and water based solution.

Main ingredients

  1. 30% Citriodiol® — The active ingredient comes from a botanical oil found in the leaves of the eucalyptus citriodora tree. This is responsible for the repellency of Mosi-guard Natural® products. The main component in Citriodiol is p-menthane-3,8-diol or PMD, making up at least 64% of the oil.
  2. Aqua — Water provides a liquid base for the product.
  3. Denatured ethanol and isopropyl alcohol — Forms of non-drinkable alcohol used as solvents to help blend the active ingredient (which is oily) into the product.

Mosi-guard Natural® Spray Extra ingredients

Mosi-guard Natural® Spray Extra is a hydroalcoholic solution. The main difference in the ingredients of Spray and Spray Extra is that the Spray Extra contains 40% Citriodiol® compared to 30% Citriodiol in the Spray.

Main ingredients

  1. 40% Citriodiol — The active ingredient comes from a botanical oil found in the leaves of the eucalyptus citriodora tree. This is responsible for the repellency of Mosi-guard Natural® products. The main component in Citriodiol is p-menthane-3,8-diol or PMD, making up at least 64% of the oil.
  2. Aqua — Water provides a liquid base for the product.
  3. Denatured ethanol and isopropyl alcohol — Forms of non-drinkable alcohol used as solvents to help blend the active ingredient (which is oily) into the product.

Mosi-guard Natural® Roll-on ingredients

Mosi-guard Natural® Roll-on is an emulsion. An emulsion is a mixture of two phases that will not mix together under normal circumstances, in this case oil and water. To prevent the two phases from separating we use stabilisers.

Main ingredients

  1. 30% Citriodiol® — The active ingredient comes from a botanical oil found in the leaves of the eucalyptus citriodora tree. This is responsible for the repellency of Mosi-guard Natural® products. The main component in Citriodiol is p-menthane-3,8-diol or PMD, making up at least 64% of the oil.
  2. Aqua — Water is used to provide a liquid base for the emulsion.Minor ingredients (≤ 10%)
  3. Isohexadecane — A clear, odourless, apolar oil with 99% purity. It has a light velvety skin feel and functions as an emollient. It provides a moisturising effect by limiting water loss from the skin.
  4. Diisopropyl Adipate — This is the ester formed by combining isopropyl alcohol and adipic acid. Adipic acid is found in beet juice. It acts as a lubricant on the skin’s surface and give it a soft and smooth appearance.
  5. Steareth-21 — A waxy solid derived from fatty alcohols. It is prepared from vegetable oils by hydrogenation. It emulsifies and disperses the oily materials into the water to form a stable emulsion.
  6. PEG-8 Distearate and Steareth-2 — Waxy solids used as co-emulsifiers for oil-in water emulsions. They work in combination with steareth-21 to form a glossy white lotion.
  7. Cetearyl Alcohol — A waxy solid derived from fatty alcohol. It acts as an emulsion stabiliser and prevents separation of the oils and water.
  8. Disodium EDTA — EDTA acts as an antioxidant. Without EDTA colours and odours can break down.
  9. Sodium Lactate Aqua — A natural salt formed from fermentation of lactic acid and dissolved in water. It improves the stability of the product by creating an undesirable environment for bacteria. The other benefit of sodium lactate is its high capacity for holding water. This will increase the moisture content of the skin.
  10. C18-22 Hydroxyalkyl Hydroxypropyl Guar — A thickener and emulsion stabiliser that improves the feel and texture of the product by increasing its thickness.
  11. Hydrogenated  Polydecene, Sodium Polyacryloyldimethyl Taurate and Trideceth-10 — These increase the thickness of the product and improve its feel and texture.
  12. Lactic Acid Aqua — Used to adjust the final pH of the product.

Mosi-guard Natural® Stick ingredients

Mosi-guard Natural® stick is a solid insect repellent formula.

Main ingredients

  1. 32% Citriodiol® — The active ingredient comes from a botanical oil found in the leaves of the eucalyptus citriodora tree. This is responsible for the repellency of Mosi-guard Natural® products. The main component in Citriodiol is p-menthane-3,8-diol or PMD, making up at least 64% of the oil.
  2. Butylene glycol — This solvent stops the active ingredient, Citriodiol, from crystallising. It also helps to keep the skin moist and prevents bacteria growth.
  3. Glycerine — A viscous (sugar alcohol) common in cosmetic products. It is derived from vegetable oils and is a by-product of soap manufacture. It is used to improve smoothness by providing lubrication and moisturising effects.Minor ingredients (≤ 10%)
  4. Sodium Stearate — A white solid that is the main component in soap. It thickens the product into the solid stick and works to improve its texture and feel.
  5. Cetyl Alcohol — A waxy solid that thickens the product. It acts an emollient and thickener to form the stick and prevents water loss from the stick.



Q & A

More about Mosi-guard Natural® in terms of how it is different from DEET based mosquito repellents as well as product information related to warning labels, animal testing and safety.

  1. Why is Mosi-guard Natural a unique insect repellent?
  2. What is DEET?
  3. DEET versus DEET free?
  4. What are the problems associated with DEET and how do they compare to Citriodiol?
  5. Is Mosi-guard Natural as effective as DEET based repellents?
  6. How can I be sure Mosi-guard Natural will work?
  7. Why do Mosi-guard Natural products have the irritating to eyes warning label?
  8. Why do Mosi-guard Natural products have flammable warning labels?
  9. Does Mosi-guard Natural contain allergens?
  10. Is Mosi-guard Natural safe for plants, animals and our planet?
  11. Some ingredients in Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents sound very ‘chemically’ for products with a plant based active. Why is this?
  12. Are Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents really naturally sourced?
  13. Why do Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents contain alcohol?
  14. What is Citriodiol®?
  15. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural® if I am pregnant?
  16. How can I be sure Mosi-guard Natural will work?
  17. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural abroad?
  18. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural on babies and young children?
  19. How long does Mosi-guard Natural last as an effective insect repellent?
  20. What can I do to avoid these insect bites?

  21. What diseases does each insect spread and where are they found?
  22. Are there any insects and insect bites to worry about in the UK?
1. Why is Mosi-guard  Natural® a unique insect repellent?

You may think that a naturally and sustainably sourced insect repellent like Mosi-guard Natural® might not work. You may be concerned that naturally derived products may not be tested as thoroughly as more established, synthetic repellents. But Mosi-guard Natural® is one plant-based repellent that entomologists and regulators around the world agree is truly effective without raising the growing concerns about neurotoxicity and high dermal absorption seen in synthetic products such as DEET.

This active ingredient is sold under the brand name Citriodiol® and known generically as either PMD rich botanic oil (PMDRBO) or Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus (OLE). Citriodiol® is made from the sustainably produced essential oil from the eucalyptus citriodora tree. Unlike other essential oil based products, it has passed the most rigorous safety and efficacy tests. For example, it has met the highest standards obtaining unconditional registration at the following agencies

Citriodiol® is also currently being evaluated under the European Biocidal Products Regulation.

You may think that insect repellents are similar to moisturisers or face creams in terms of the tests they have to pass to be brought to market. In fact, the tests for insect repellents are much more comprehensive and strict. For example, insect repellents must pass comprehensive human health (and often environmental) risk assessments by the relevant authorities, neither of which are required for cosmetics.

So, if you are looking for a family-friendly insect repellent which not only works really well, but also supports the planet, Citriodiol® is for you. Look for the Citriodiol® logo on the back of many major brands of insect repellent or buy Mosi-guard Natural.

 2. What is DEET?

DEET is an old fashioned insect repellent which was registered for public use in 1957. It is derived from coal tar and is the most well known insect repellent. It is a synthetic chemical and powerful solvent.

 3. DEET versus DEET free?

The main difference is the active ingredient. The active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural® is Citriodiol®. Unlike DEET which is a synthetic chemical active, Citriodiol is plant based, also known as Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus. Other differences relate to the problems associated with DEET.

In recent years, concerns have surfaced about the use of the insect repellent DEET. There have been a small number of serious neurotoxic effects reported in small children, as well as documented mosquito resistance and accumulation of DEET in some US public waterway. Many consumers also object to DEET’s strong, chemically smell and the fact that it melts plastic upon contact. This has prompted consumers to seek DEET free alternatives.

Mosi-guard Natural® products are all entirely DEET free. They don’t melt plastic, the contain and active that is biodegradable and there is no known accumulation in any public waterways. In addition, the most recent toxicity safety profile being reviewed by the European authorities show it is appropriate for use on children at 6 months and unlike any other naturally sourced active ingredient, the active in Mosi-guard Natural® has been recommended for use by the US Center for Disease Control to repel mosquitoes carrying insect borne disease.

 4. What are the problems associated with DEET and how do they compare to Citriodiol?

There are five main areas of concern about DEET. These concerns do not apply to Citriodiol which is the plant based active in Mosi-guard Natural®.

  1. A powerful solvent
    As a powerful solvent, DEET can damage plastics, paints and synthetic fabrics, causing permanent damage and it will make colours run. DEET should be kept away from climbing ropes, watches, compasses, cameras, fishing tackle and sports equipment.
  2. Rapidly absorbed
    DEET is rapidly absorbed through the skin. This can lead to problems especially in young children. As a result there are restrictions on children under the age of 12 using DEET and guidelines suggest you should only use DEET 1-2 times a day. In contrast, very little Mosi-guard Natural® is absorbed through the skin so children as young as 6 months can use Mosi-guard Natural® and there are no restrictions on how often it can be used.
  3. Resistance is developing
    There are now reports of mosquito resistance to DEET. They have never been seen to show any tolerance of Citriodiol products like Mosi-guard Natural®.
  4. Environmental concerns
    DEET is a synthetic chemical and powerful solvent that has been detected in relatively large quantities in major waterways. In contrast, Citriodiol, is deemed to be safe for plants and animals mainly because it is readily biodegradable. Also, Citriodiol does not introduce any new substances to the ecosystem.
  5. The DEET experience
    Many people find the oily feel and smell of DEET unpleasant and skin reactions are common.
 5. Is Mosi-guard Natural® as effective as DEET based repellents?

Yes. The active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural® is Citriodiol®, nature’s most effective insect repellent. Our efficacy data shows that Citriodiol works just as well as DEET, giving 6-8 hours Complete Protection Time compared to 6-10 hours Complete Protection Time from DEET based repellents. And the Mosi-guard Natural® Spray Extra provides 10+ hours of protection. So Citriodiol in Mosi-guard Natural® is just as effective as DEET but without the associated problems  — it is a whole lot better for you and the environment.

 6. How can I be sure Mosi-guard Natural® will work?

More than 35 studies have been conducted on products like Mosi-guard Natural® that contain the active ingredient Citriodiol (also known as PMD rich botanic oil and PMDRBO). Each of these reflect a level of efficacy that far exceeds that of any other plant-based repellent and is in fact on par with synthetic repellents like DEET.

You can feel confident that this wealth of data translates to strong protection because it has been proven robust enough to support product approvals with some of the strictest authorities, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as a recommendation by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevent (CDC), which reference it by its generic name in the US, Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus.

 7. Why do Mosi-guard Natural® products have the irritating to eyes warning label?

You will find the ‘irritating to eyes’ warning on all Mosi-guard Natural® products because Citriodiol, the active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural®, stings when it gets in your eyes. There is sufficient quantity of Citriodiol in Mosi-guard Natural® products to have this stinging effect. Mosi-guard Natural® Spray and Mosi-guard Natural® Spray Extra also contain isopropyl alcohol which can irritate the eyes if sprayed directly to the eyes. According to EU directives which govern packaging and labelling, we meet the criteria for a category two eye irritant which requires us to display a hazard warning. Most products designed for use on the skin will irritate the eyes if applied directly on, or too close to the eyes. This warning simply alerts you to this fact.

 8. Why do the Mosi-guard Natural® Sprays have a flammable warning?

According to EU directives the Spray products are a category three flammable liquid which requires the flammable warning you see on Mosi-guard Natural® Spray and Mosi-guard Natural® Spray Extra. This means if these two products are directly ignited they can catch fire. You will find the ‘flammable’ warning on the Mosi-guard Natural® Spray and Spray Extra (and not on the Mosi-guard Natural® Stick or Roll-on) because the spray products contain flammable alcohol content in the same way that products like deodorant and hair spray do.

 9. Does Mosi-guard Natural® contain any allergens?

The allergens, citronellol (ca. 7%), linalool (<0.5%) and limonene (<0.5%) are all present in Eucalyptus Citriodora Oil, an ingredient found in Mosi-guard Natural®. Therefore, these allergens are also found in Mosi-guard Natural® and consumers with heightened sensitivity to these allergens should avoid using Mosi-guard Natural®.

 10. Is Mosi-guard Natural® safe for plants, animals and our planet?

Unlike synthetic substances which may upset the balance of our ecosystem by adding chemicals that mother nature never had in her plan, the active substance in Mosi-guard Natural® (Citriodiol®, also known as PMD rich botanic oil and PMDRBO) is derived from the Eucalyptus Citriodora tree. Use of our plant based mosquito repellent will not upset the earth’s natural balance.

Citriodiol is also biodegradable, which is important to the well-being of plants and animals. Instead of building up to potentially harmful high levels in waterways or soil, it simply breaks down over a relatively short period of time. This is in contrast to other repellents, like DEET, that have been recorded at noticeable levels in some public waterways. We also work hard to ensure Mosi-guard Natural® products are ethically and sustainably sourced.

We have never tested the effect of Mosi-guard Natural® on pets or any other animals. We would therefore recommend against using these products on animals.

11.  Some ingredients in Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents sound very ‘chemically’ for products with a plant based active. Why is this?
Mosi-guard Natural® products combine the best of Mother Nature and the most suitable modern day formulatory tools to bring you a range of insect repellent products that are truly efficacious, skin kind, long lasting and suitable for your whole family. Here is more information about our ingredients.

12. Are Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents really naturally sourced?
Mosi-guard Natural’s® active ingredient comes directly from lemon eucalyptus citriodora oil. This essential oil is sustainably harvested from the leaves and twigs of the eucalyptus citriodora tree by a simple process of steam distillation. In nature, the main component of the oil is citronellal and as the oil ages, that citronellal gradually turns into p-menthane-3,8-diol (PMD).
Some PMD is found in the “young” oil but only in small amounts. Because it is not possible to distill the oil when it is more mature and because the PMD is central to the oil efficacy in repelling biting insects, our suppliers harvest the oil from leaves that are about 18 months old. We then mimic nature by turning the rest of the citronellal into more PMD without adding anything extra to the finished product. This is how Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents can come from a natural source but still work really well in repelling bugs.

13. Why do Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellents contain alcohol?
All Mosi-guard Natural® products contain types of non-drinkable alcohol that are routinely used in cosmetic products and that are approved for use in consumer products.  We can recommend them with confidence because each of our products has undergone rigorous reviews required for their sale around the world.
In case you still have concerns, here are the types of alcohol our products contain:
•    Mosi-guard Natural® Spray and Spray Extra contain ethanol and isopropyl alcohol which we use as solvents because the active ingredient is oily and won’t mix into a spray form with just water
•    Mosi-guard Natural® Roll-on contains cetearyl alcohol, a waxy solid, which we use as an emulsifier and emollient to improve the feel of the products on the skin and provide a moisturising effect
•    Mosi-guard Natural® Stick contains cetyl alcohol, used as an emulsifier and emollient and glycerine, a sugar alcohol used to improve smoothness through its lubrication and moisturising effects

14. What is Citriodiol®?
The active ingredient in Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellent is Citriodiol. Citriodiol is the trade name for p-menthane 3.8 diol botanic oil (PMDRBO) which can also be called PMD. In the USA Citriodiol is registered and known as oil of lemon eucalyptus (OLE).

15. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural® if I am pregnant?
There have been no formal studies on pregnant women. However, if you do need to use a repellent, Mosi-guard Natural® would be a logical choice as it is plant based and                   *very little is absorbed through the skin
* Editor’s note: not true – the skin absorbs most everything, if not everything you put on it

16. How can I be sure Mosi-guard Natural® will work?

More than 35 studies have been conducted on products like Mosi-guard Natural® that contain the active ingredient Citriodiol (also known as PMD rich botanic oil and PMDRBO). Each of these reflect a level of efficacy that far exceeds that of any other plant-based repellent and is in fact on par with synthetic repellents like DEET.

You can feel confident that this wealth of data translates to strong protection because it has been proven robust enough to support product approvals with some of the strictest authorities, including the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, as well as a recommendation by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevent (CDC), which reference it by its generic name in the US, Oil of Lemon Eucalyptus.

17. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural® abroad?

Mosi-guard Natural® is a regulated and proven plant based insect repellent with strong efficacy data that shows it is just as effective as synthetic insect repellents. Therefore, Mosi-guard Natural® can be used abroad.

18. Can I use Mosi-guard Natural® as an insect repellent for babies and children?

There has been extensive experience with the use of Mosi-guard Natural® as an insect repellent for babies from 6 months onwards. There is less experience with very young babies. Many people choose to use Mosi-guard Natural® insect repellent for babies and young children because very little of the active ingredient is absorbed through the skin. As baby’s skin can be sensitive, we always suggest that you apply a little of the repellent to a patch of skin before making a full application. It is essential to protect babies if taking them into areas where Malaria and other diseases may be a risk.

19. How long does Mosi-guard Natural® last as an effective insect repellent?

A study conducted at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine showed that Mosi-guard Natural® is effective for 11 hours against free-flying Mosquitoes when applied at normal consumer rates. In trials of this nature the subjects are inactive. Repellents may wear off more quickly if you are active or perspiring and should be reapplied more frequently.

20. What can I do to avoid these insect bites?

Always find out the most up-to-date information on insects and diseases for your travel destination. Websites like Know Before You Go and the Hospital for Tropical Diseases provide such useful information. GPs and travel clinics can also offer valuable advice about the most effective preventative medication for your destination.

However, it is important to note that no preventative medication offers 100% protection, so it is very important to avoid being bitten.

Mosquito bite prevention

Keep covered up
Most mosquitoes bite between dusk and dawn. Avoid exposing your skin by wearing long sleeved shirts and trousers. Aedes mosquitoes which transmit dengue and yellow fever are mainly active during the day with their peak biting times shortly after sunrise and just before sunset. To avoid being bitten by these daytime biters avoid outdoor shady conditions and sleep under a mosquito net if you take a siesta.

Use effective insect repellent
If your skin is exposed then it is important to use a safe and effective insect repellent on all areas of exposed skin.

Use a mosquito net at night
Mosquito nets provide very good protection especially when impregnated with the residual insecticide permethrin. Permethrin is poorly absorbed by the skin and has a low mammalian toxicity. There are a number of different styles of mosquito net and you should choose the one most suitable for where you are.

Sleeping in a room with air-conditioning will discourage mosquitoes.

Use a plug-in insecticide vaporiser
Use a knockdown spray (any fly spray will do) to clear the room of mosquitoes. Plug-in insecticide vaporisers are very effective for overnight protection as long as the room is relatively free from draughts. The vaporisers consist of a heating pad onto which an insecticide soaked tablet is placed. The insecticide gradually vaporises throughout the night killing any mosquitoes that get into the room.

Spray mosquito breeding grounds
If you are staying for long periods in areas where mosquitoes are a problem, then remember that they breed in stagnant water. Mosquitoes lay eggs in as little as a quarter inch of standing water. A good mosquito bite prevention method is to ensure mosquito breeding areas within 500 yards of your accommodation are regularly sprayed or eliminated.

Midge bite prevention

Midges are tiny swarming insects that are common in the Scottish Highlands during the summer months. Bites from midges do not transmit disease but can make life almost unbearable. Mosi-guard Natural® will help stop midges from biting but not from swarming around you. You can avoid midges with anti-midge hats, midge body suits and midge netting (smaller than mosquito nets) to cover tent entrances. Natural remedies include garlic, marmite, yeast tablets, sprigs of bog-myrtle or burning citronella.

Tick bite prevention

Tick bites spread lyme disease in the UK and abroad. There is currently no vaccine against lyme disease so you must be aware that areas with ground cover, foliage and diverse wildlife can pose a risk of ticks. To prevent tick bites use an insect repellent and keep covered up. Tucking your trouser legs into your socks will help. After being outside in tick prone areas be sure to check your body, pets and clothing for ticks. Carry a tick remover so you can quickly remove ticks and reduce the chance of disease transmission.


Have you ever wondered what the benefits and disadvantages of using chemically based repellents are?  

Have you thought about Deet and perhaps compared it with a natural based insect repellent such as Mosi guard?

Listed below is a comprehensive list of the major benefits of using Mosi Guard natural insect repellent, compared to the chemical based Deet insect repellent.

Mosi-guard-natural-extra-sprayMosi-Guard Natural Insect Repellent

Mosi guard natural insect repellent is 100% natural and is made from renewable resources. The main ingredient is Citriodiol which is a lemon eucalyptus oil. Insects such as mosquitoes, sandflies, midges, ticks and leeches find this eucalyptus oil distasteful, resulting in confused and disorientated insects.

Mosi-guard natural insect repellent is recommended for adults, children and babies from 3 months of age and is suitable for both high risk and low risk geographical areas. It can be used for walking, hiking, treking, hunting, golfing, farming or fishing.  You can also use it when at the beach, relaxing in the garden, or cycling, climbing or camping.

Extensive research and tests have been carried out on insects in Tanzania, Malaysia, Bolivia – tests have even been conducted on the midges in Scotland, with positive results in every situation! Plus, the Mosi guard repellent is the only plant based repellent that is recognised as being effective by leading authorities.

Mosi guard is actively supporting the BADA-UK (Borreliosis and Associated Diseases Awareness – UK) charity in promoting public awareness of Lyme disease and protection against tick bites. For every Mosi guard sold within the UK, a donation to BADA is made. For further information, check out the BADA-UK website –

In summary, the 100% natural Mosi guard insect repellent will protect you against:

  • Mosquitoes
  • Sandflies
  • Ticks
  • Midges
  • Leeches

 Mosi guard Natural Insect Repellent – Benefits and Disadvantages

Benefits Disadvantages
  • 100% Natural Ingredients
  • Repels up to 10 hours
  • Suitable for adults, children and babies from 3 months old
  • Use in high and low risks geographical areas
  • Uses renewable resources therefore environmentally friendly
  • Protects against Mosquitoes, Sandflies, Midges, Ticks and Leeches
  • No adverse effects on clothing or plastic equipment
  • Fresh, lemon smell
  • Supports BADA- UK Charity
  • Tested in Tanzania, Malaysia, Bolivia, and even on midges in Scotland
  • Can be washed off easily
  • Kind to your skin
  • Can cause eye and mouth area to sting if applied incorrectly
  • Can feel slightly sticky/oily when applied initially
  • If pregnant, you are advised to consult a doctor before use

Deet Insect Repellent

Deet insect repellent is a chemical based repellent made from coal tar. First introduced and used in the late 1940’s by the US Army, Deet (or Diethyl Toluamide) is used in high risk environments where there is a high number of malaria – carrying mosquitoes.

There are three strengths of Deet available:

  • Deet 30% concentration – suitable for most holiday destinations
  • Deet 50% concentration – can be used by children and adults
  • Deet 100% concentration – should be used on clothing only

There has always been some concerns over using chemically based Deet insect repellent on our health and equipment. Testing revealed that Deet insect repellent should be kept away from climbing ropes, watches, compasses, cameras, rucksacks and any sports equipment as it has an adverse affect on plastic. Plus, Deet can also make colours run on fabric.

More recent studies (February 2013) carried out by London School of Hygiene and Tropial Medicine has shown that some mosquitoes are now growing resistant to Deet. For further information

Deet Insect Repellent – Benefits and Disadvantages

Benefits Disadvantage
  • Suitable for use in high risk geographical areas
  • Suitable for areas which are exposed to Malaria and dengue fever
  • Very little odour
  • Non-greasy
  • Protects against Mosquitoes, Ticks, Fleas and Chiggers, plus any other insect that can transmit diseases
  • May cause minor skin irritation
  • Chemical based
  • Chemicals can pass through your skin
  • Can damage climbing ropes, watches, compasses, and any sporting equipment as Deet will damage any plastic based equipment

i dont do DEET


repellents with DEET are deadly.

use these instead all based on natural (p-Menthàne-3,8-Diol) Lemon Scented Eucalyptus and MORE EFFECTIVE then DEET poison:

bug rr off




DEET articles

Extract from  above link

Why DEET-Containing Repellents Are Better Off Avoided
About 30 percent of Americans use DEET every year, but you should know that this chemical – though generally effective in keeping away insects – can have deadly repercussions. From 1961 to 2002, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry reports eight deaths related to DEET exposure.

Three of these resulted from deliberate ingestion, but five of them occurred following DEET exposure to the skin in adults and children.3 Psychological effects have also been reported including altered mental state, auditory hallucinations, and severe agitation.

In children, the most frequently reported symptoms of DEET toxicity reported to poison control centers were lethargy, headaches, tremors, involuntary movements, seizures, and convulsions.

Further, in a study of more than 140 National Park Service employees, 25 percent reported health effects they attributed to DEET, including:
Skin or mucous membrane irritation
Transient numb or burning lips
Difficulty concentrating

In addition, Duke University Medical Center pharmacologist Mohamed Abou-Donia spent 30 years researching the effects of pesticides. He discovered that prolonged exposure to DEET can impair cell function in parts of your brain — demonstrated in the lab by death and behavioral changes in rats with frequent or prolonged DEET use.

Other potential side effects DEET exposure include:
Memory loss
Muscle weakness and fatigue
Shortness of breath
Muscle and joint pain


The popular insect repellent deet is neurotoxic

03 Aug 2009

The active ingredient in many insect repellents, deet, has been found to be toxic to the central nervous system. Researchers writing in the open access journal BMC Biology say that more investigations are urgently needed to confirm or dismiss any potential neurotoxicity to humans, especially when deet-based repellents are used in combination with other neurotoxic insecticides.

Vincent Corbel from the Institut de Recherche pour le D¿veloppement in Montpellier, and Bruno Lapied from the University of Angers, France, led a team of researchers who investigated the mode of action and toxicity of deet (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide). Corbel said, “We’ve found that deet is not simply a behavior-modifying chemical but also inhibits the activity of a key central nervous system enzyme, acetycholinesterase, in both insects and mammals”.

Discovered in 1953, deet is still the most common ingredient in insect repellent preparations. It is effective against a broad spectrum of medically important pests, including mosquitoes. Despite its widespread use, controversies remain concerning both the identification of its target sites at the molecular level and its mechanism of action in insects. In a series of experiments, Corbel and his colleagues found that deet inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme – the same mode of action used by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. These insecticides are often used in combination with deet, and the researchers also found that deet interacts with carbamate insecticides to increase their toxicity. Corbel concludes, “These findings question the safety of deet, particularly in combination with other chemicals, and they highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of safer insect repellents for use in public health”.

Media Contact
Graeme Baldwin
Press Office, BioMed Central

Tel: +44 (0)20 3192 2165
Mob: +44 (0)7825 706422

Non-toxic – how effective?
Eureka Natural Insect Repellent contains a balanced blend of Geranium and Lavender oils which are renowned for their kindness to skin and their midge and mosquito repelling qualities. It is based on an old oriental formula and it doesn’t contain any citronella, DEET or alcohol.

non toxic What are the ingredients?
With over 20 years experience in the industry, Xpel is a UK based company that provides affordable solutions to biting insects.

Some of these products have Picaridin (SALTIDIN) & Citriodiol

The Care Plus range of insect repellents includes s

omething for everyone – DEET lotions and gel, Picaridin (an effective alternative to DEET) and Citriodiol (a natural insect repellent derived from Lemon Eucalyptus Oil).
The EcoGuard range of insect repellents contain Saltidin (Icaridin) – an insect repellent that was developed as an effective alternative to DEET. Many people find it more pleasant to use than DEET as it is odourless with a light, clean feel.

Some below products MIGHT be ok – i have not looked at them
The Autan Tropical Insect Repellent Pump Spray contains Icaridin – an effective alternative to DEET that is more pleasant to use. It is also known as Saltidin or Picaridin and it is odourless with a light, clean feel.
Avon Skin So Soft is a dry oil body spray that many people swear by for dealing with midges. It isn’t intended for use as insect repellent in the UK but it does actually contain both Citronellol and Limonene which are used as ingredients in many insect repellents.
It’s also a very pleasant product to use – not suprising really given that it is part of the Avon Cosmetics range – and this may be the secret of its success: people don’t mind applying it in copious quantities, whereas more standard insect repellents might be used a little too sparingly.
Avon Skin So Soft is supplied in a 150ml pump action spray.
Ben’s Insect Repellent has a strong reputation and a loyal following throughout the world – particularly in the USA where Ben’s 100 has achieved almost cult status. The full range includes both DEET and natural insect repellent and After Bite is the product of choice for many travellers.

making the stuff para-menthane-3,8-diol

Method for producing para-menthane-3,8-diol
US 5959161 A
To offer a method of producing useful para-menthane-3,8-diol having the excellent repellent action to harmful living things, including noxious insects, in high purity and high yield, simply, and economically by the use of citronellal as a raw material compound.
The above-mentioned problems are resolved by the production method of this invention wherein citronellal is treated with aqueous sulfuric acid solution of 0.02 to 1.0 wt. % in concentration to produce para-menthane-3,8-diol. In case of recovering the produced para-menthane-3,8-diol, a method is preferably adopted, wherein after the reaction product is extracted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent of 5 to 8 in carbon number, the extract is cooled down at temperature higher than the melting point of said aliphatic hydrocarbon solvent and of -10° C. or less to crystallize para-menthane-3,8-diol.

Beautiful Hair Naturally! Wow! I can shampoo again!


Morrocco Method of Beautiful Hair: Raw Vegan Wildcrafted Natural Botanicals

Antonio Morrocco Hair Shaman   Raw Radio on Antonio Morrocco  Dr Weil Breathing Exercises

World’s Best Eco Vegan Toothbrush! Eureka!

World’s Best Eco Vegan Toothbrush! Eureka!


How is it that some people who have never used a toothbrush have also never had a cavity.  At last – after wondering and researching casually for over ten years, I have found it!

Why the Stick? and Buy the Stick!

image source

The World’s Best Eco Vegan Toothbrush!

and guess what! It’s a STICK!  cut from the roots of the licorice plant!    see all about Licorice

i have found the STICK!  my search is over!

my search ended at Shipards Herb FarmLicorice Book   and    Licorice Root
from Shipards Herb Farm: How To Order –  If know what you are after, you may order or check the availability and price of any plants by emailing us at



Improvement is noticeable within a week! using the sticks naturally improves mouth hygiene dramatically.

i have been using my licorice stick now for three days. And my  teeth have taken on opalescent or perhaps a porcelain quality – and the faint patchiness of this new whiteness emerging indicate that there is more tooth whitening to come.
whitening was the last thing I was thinking of when I thought I would give this stick a real tryout!

PS miswak inspired me to find something here in australia.  and o dear, dare i say it? i think my licorice-root stick is even better than the best miswak. it is softer than most sticks, but i will reserve opinion until i test a few different miswak sticks.

for a period of about 1 year, i have had one tiny area at the base of one tooth which was seemed always to have an infection .  the dentist discovered it, and named it as pyorrhoea and cleaned under the skin at the base of the tooth. and it was gone. yet six months later, the pyorrhoea returned.

during this three days of using my lovely  licorice-root toothbrush, the most wonderful toothbrush of all,  i now do not have the beginnings of gum disease  … yeehah

Read more from these Fans of the Stick
1 Nadia, another fan of the STICK 
Growing up on the Caribbean island of Trinidad, my Mother was given the twigs of the hibiscus tree to use as a toothbrush – they referred to this as datwan
another possible fan, a learner’s diary blogger
3 the most excellent site all about Miswak and teeth

STOP PRESS!  UPDATE! march 2017

dawn of a new era = fancy MISWAK toothbrush    SWAK from Germany



Using Miswak has made me want to smile a lot more. Miswak has made my teeth a lot whiter. I wish I had taken pictures of my teeth two months ago. If I had, you would see a stark contrast between what my teeth looked like before I started using Miswak, and what they look like now. My teeth still aren’t perfect, but if I keep using Miswak, they will be.

Using Miswak has made me want to smile a lot more. Miswak has made my teeth a lot whiter. I wish I had taken pictures of my teeth two months ago. If I had, you would see a stark contrast between what my teeth looked like before I started using Miswak, and what they look like now. My teeth still aren’t perfect, but if I keep using Miswak, they will be.

A little history ….
Indigenous people, who typically possess a mouthful of flawless teeth, use herbs, twigs and roots to clean their teeth. Even the skulls of cavemen depict a mouthful of nearly flawless teeth. Our ancestors were using something natural to clean their teeth. Perhaps, something such as licorice root which is also an antibacterial herb that reduces plaque and has anti-cavity functions.

i have found the STICK!  my search is over!

UPDATE june 2017
because i have found my perfect toothbrush, the licorice-root, this site is now archived, still maintained. the only difference is that there are no longer any “contact” or “feedback” page. you can still comment on posts and pages.

thank you for your interest in this site dear readers – it is very widely read, so thank you for reading!       Cheers from marion


Round Toothpicks are not for Cleaning Teeth


They are for skewering food and for building sculptures. And round toothpicks harm teeth and gums.

A replacement for Interdens


517cure-dentsEureka, after a year of looking!

Almost as good as Interdens, if not better.

Sweden or Switzerland or Norway, they all seem to rebrand for various companies, so i  would recommend buying from Japanese as they are artisans when it comes to woodsticks. and all automated, so still get the good price.

Who made them? Interdens by GSK Glaxo Smith Kline UK and Stim U Dent by Johnson & Johnson.  I have never tried the Stimudent by either the original or the latest Chinese version marketed by natural dentist, so i cannot compare the Japanese one i recommend

I have used interdens since my mother introduced them to me as a child, in the 1960′s.  Mother had all her own teeth and she used interdens daily. the text is true “With a proper programme of oral hygiene you and interdens can help keep your natural teeth for life. “

They are the next best thing to having a neem tree – and they are affordable. They make sense to children, to adults to everyone. Get them. You won’t regret it.

The text on the interden packet:

Hold interdens stick near the centre
of its length. Moisten pointed end in
mouth. Insert in tooth space, blunt edge
next to gum. Use gentle in-out motion.
interdens sticks remove plaque from
the interdentalspaces, cleansing
surfaces not reachable by a toothbrush.
Help you keep your natural teeth for life.
Use anywhere, any time.

interdens are recognized by the dental
profession as a valuable aid to good oral
hygiene and health. They are produced from
a specially selected grade of wood for their
ideal texture, and are impregnated with a breath freshener to refresh the
Regular use of interdens effectively remove plaque (a sticky, bacteria containing film)
From those surfaces of the teeth and gums which are not reached by ordinary toothbrushing.
The bacteria in the plaque change sugar from food which we eat or drink, into acid, which
attacks the enamel of tooth causing caries (decay). They also produce toxins which
can cause inflammation of the gums.
Removal of the plaque by a regular daily use of toothbrushing techniques and interdens
will help you maintain a healthy dental condition.
With a proper programme of oral hygiene you and interdens can help keep your
natural teeth for life.
Please note interdens may be soaked for a period in warm water which has a softening
effect for care of tender gums.

Use for children only on dental recommendation.

Hold interdens stick near the centre
of its length. Moisten pointed end in
mouth. Insert in tooth space, blunt edge
next to gum. Use gentle in-out motion.
interdens sticks remove plaque from
the interdentalspaces, cleansing
surfaces not reachable by a toothbrush.
Help you keep your natural teeth for life.
Use anywhere, any time.

interdens are recognized by the dental
profession as a valuable aid to good oral
hygiene and health. They are produced from
a specially selected grade of wood for their
ideal texture, and are impregnated with a breath freshener to refresh the
Regular use of interdens effectively remove plaque (a sticky, bacteria containing film)
From those surfaces of the teeth and gums which are not reached by ordinary toothbrushing.
The bacteria in the plaque change sugar from food which we eat or drink, into acid, which
attacks the enamel of tooth causing caries (decay). They also produce toxins which
can cause inflammation of the gums.
Removal of the plaque by a regular daily use of toothbrushing techniques and interdens
will help you maintain a healthy dental condition.
With a proper programme of oral hygiene you and interdens can help keep your
natural teeth for life.
Please note interdens may be soaked for a period in warm water which has a softening
effect for care of tender gums.

Use for children only on dental recommendation.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE Hold interdens stick near the centre of its length. Moisten pointed end in mouth. Insert in tooth space, blunt edge next to gum. Use gentle in-out motion. Interdens sticks remove plaque from the interdental spaces, cleansing surfaces not reachable by a toothbrush. Help you keep your natural teeth for life. Use anywhere, any time.

mB5gAVHU1AKqpi4Nbdy5YYQInterdensinterdens2 are recognized by the dental profession as a valuable aid to good oral hygiene and health. They are produced from a specially selected grade of wood for their ideal texture, and are impregnated with a breath freshener to refresh the mouth.

Regular use of interdens effectively remove plaque (a sticky, bacteria containing film) from those surfaces of the teeth and gums which are not reached by ordinary toothbrushing.

stam10470_3_bsensodene dental sticksThe bacteria in the plaque change sugar from food which we eat or drink, into acid, which attacks the enamel of tooth causing caries (decay). They also produce toxins which can cause inflammation of the gums.


this is signed by Douglas Adams, possibly on his way to the Restaurant at the End of the Universe

Removal of the plaque by a regular daily use of toothbrushing techniques and interdens will help you maintain a healthy dental condition.

With a proper programme of oral hygiene you and interdens can help keep your natural teeth for life.
Please note interdens may be soaked for a period in warm water which has a softening effect for care of tender gums. Use for children only on dental recommendation.

With a proper programme of oral hygiene you and interdens can help keep yournatural teeth for life.

My Review for Jordon Woodsticks

Jordon PROS:
right thickness
right price

Jordon CONS:
artificial mint flavour
imbued with toxic fluoride
wood is not as soft, so breaks more easily in teeth

these are made in norway, where they use the white  birch.

Komon Pattern Triangular Toothpick 3 Sets x 3 from Osaka Prefecture

APPROX 10 cents each without postage from

This item won the gold prize in the TRADITIONAL JAPAN category of the “Most Charmingosaka triangle3 Japanese Souvenir Contest 2011″ held by the Japan Tourism Agency.
With this triangle-shaped dental pick made for cleaning the narrow space between teeth, you can remove plaque using osaka trianglethe top two surfaces, lightly press the interdental papilla with the bottom surface to massage your gums. This massage facilitates blood flow which helps prevent gum disease. These toothpicks are popular in the U.S. and Europe. You can easily take them with you to clean your teeth right after your meal. They are considered to be the most important tool for preventing gum disease in the U.S. and Europe.
●Material: Hokkaido White Birch
●Made in Osaka Prefecture
●Brand Name: Cleardent
●Color/ Design A x 3 sets, Design B x 3 sets
●Approximate Size: 65 x 5 x 220mm
●Product Weight: Approximately 6g
●Total Weight Including Packaging: Approximately 23g
●Contains: 9 packs (3 sets x 3)
●Comes with portable case
●Triangular dental toothpicks are used to conveniently clean between the teeth.

The original purpose of traditional toothpicks was for putting on food. That’s why they are called cocktail picks and are treated as kitchenware. Those round cocktail toothpicks can damage your gums.

Te Pe Dental sticks without fluoride 

apparently made in Sweden

TePe Munhygienprodukter AB

Bronsåldersgatan 5

SE-213 76 Malmö

Tel: 040-670 11 00

Fax: 040-670 11 11

Wider, pliable dental stick. Designed for wider interdental spaces. 125 dental sticks per box. Linden wood, which is recommended for wider interdental spaces.

Wider, pliable dental stick. Designed for wider interdental spaces. 125 dental sticks per box. Linden wood, which is recommended for wider interdental spaces.

Slim dental stick. For tighter interdental spaces. 125 dental sticks per box. Birch wood.

Slim dental stick. For tighter interdental spaces. 125 dental sticks per box. Birch wood.

It is recommended to use dental sticks nightly between all the interdental spaces to help prevent overnight bacteria growth. Choose a wooden stick size that will fit your interdental spaces. If necessary, let your dentist or dental hygienist find the right size for you. For extra caries protection, choose a fluoride impregnated dental stick. If you use fluoride impregnated dental sticks, wait at least half an hour before you eat or drink. The released fluoride will then stay in your mouth and help prevent dental caries.

Moisten the dental stick in your mouth before using it. This will make it last longer, be more pliable and have a better fluoride effect. Move the dental stick, flat side against gum tissue, back and forth in each interdental space. Dental sticks will clean larger surfaces if angled. If you hold one or more fingers against your chin, you will get more stability and better control.

6 Reasons Why Dentists Recommend Triangular-Shaped Wooden Dental Sticks!

1. The triangular shape.

Designed in the shape of an isosceles triangle, fit perfectly between your teeth. By placing the base of the triangle against the gum tissue, you can remove plaque from the inner tooth surfaces and massage the gum tissue all in one motion.

2. The tapered point.

The tapered point fits so perfectly between your teeth, no matter how tall or short that space is.  Perfect for dislodging food particles and plaque – keeping you clean and comfortable.

3. The wood.

Made of special wood that creates the ideal texture and flexibility when wet, they squeeze in between teeth and remove sticky plaque before it becomes tartar (the stuff your dental hygienist has to scrape off during your cleanings).  And the wood is biodegradable and comes from managed forests.

4. They stimulate your gums.

They will remove plaque and food from between your teeth, but that’s only the beginning.  The in-and-out motion used also stimulates blood flow to your gum tissue – keeping your gums nourished and healthy.

5. They’re safe.

The flexibility of the wood means they will bend or break if you push too hard – they will never shift or damage your teeth.  (Don’t try that with a conventional wooden toothpick!)

Eco Matresses


a bit off topic — over the years, every time i need a mattress, i go in search of healthy-in-every-way mattresses. this time i am looking for a shiatsu mat for my ZenThai Shiatsu Practice


this futon mattress will do until i get what i need

until i get the one i want i have bought a futon for $40 on gumtree – mattress is TOO THICK – I will discard the base or keep it, so that i can keep the mat aired.


1 and half inch rubber – brilliant!

I really want 100% latex. latex has been for me, the very bestest thing to lay on.   also it is waterproof – a huge plus. i have found a source of two doubles – 3.5cm thickness (1.37795276 inches) and 66″  x 80″.  not quite as large as typical shiatsu size. however this is a bonus, rather than a neg.  they will fit in the back of my car, flat.  and they will fit on a double bed.

double size is 137cm  (approx 54  cm)  x 188cm  (approx 74  cm)

i really like the look of this FLAX and WOOL – IN AUSTRALIA also


flax and wool


flax and wool

SIZE of typical shiatsu mat is:

 60″ (152.4000cm)  x 84″ (213.3600cm)

toronto shiatsu this is made of soy foam which is according to article below, TOXIC

66″  (167.6400cm)  x   80″ (203.2000cm)
Shiatsu Mat wPract500

BEAN brand – probably the only specifically shiatsu i could find on the net – i would say good quality.

LINKS THAT LOOK GOOD – i have not used any of these


Soy Memory Foam Mattresses not Healthy

Soy memory foam mattresses or biofoam mattresses are all the rage these days. It’s time to break down what soy memory foam mattresses or plant based memory foam mattresses are all about.

Only 5-20% of the mattress is actually made up of soy. This would be fine if companies marketed them as eco-friendly mattresses which contain x% of soy. However companies mislead you, calling them soy memory foam mattresses or soy based mattresses and claim they’re healthy.

Misleading the public into thinking products are green, natural or eco-friendly is called green washing. There is no monitoring of these claims.

Essentia is the only company to have invented a natural memory foam mattress that’s made from rubber tree sap, NOT petroleum based.

No Benefits to Soy in Mattresses

There is very little benefit to putting soy in a mattress.

In fact the company behind soy-based ingredients, called BiOH® polyols, is Cargill.

Cargill is widely known for environmental and human rights abuse and was voted Corporate America’s 2nd worst polluter by Upstart’s Toxic 10.

Cargill is also the world’s largest soybean processor and trader. Their soy based ingredients are genetically engineered. Genetically modified foods are still banned in Europe and more than 40 countries now require GMO labeling. USA and Canada are not among them.

3,800 barrels of oil are saved when 100,000 mattresses are manufactured with soy-based foam. You’d expect considerable savings for the consumer right? Nope. Soy-based memory foam mattresses or bio foam mattresses are actually more expensive than regular memory foam even though they cost less to produce. Companies overcharge since they can promote the “eco-friendly” characteristics.

Replacing a portion of the chemicals in foam makes it 5-20% healthier. Is 5-20% good enough?

Are Bio Memory Foam Mattresses Environmentally Friendly?

No. The expansion of soy plantations in countries such as Brazil and Argentina means that rain forests are being completely slashed and burned, eliminating critical habitats for many plant and animal species. Every day 86,400 football fields of rainforest are cut down to mainly make room for livestock, soy, palm, and corn.

Genetically modified soy accounts for 93% of all soy grown in the United States as of 2010.

What’s that Chemical Smell from my Soy Foam Mattress?

People who’ve purchased soy memory foam mattresses are experiencing strong chemicals odors, smells or off-gassing. Soy does not produce this odor, the odor derives from the harsh chemicals used to make these synthetic foams. Green tea leaves or industrial perfumes are often added as an attempt to mask the odor.

Are Bamboo Mattress Fabrics Eco-friendly?

Soy memory foam mattresses are often wrapped in bamboo fabric. The percentage of bamboo is anywhere from 20-60% bamboo.

You guessed it. Bamboo fabrics are far from eco-friendly. The final product is considered man-made, so they aren’t biodegradable.

According to the OTA, Organic Trade Association, “bamboo may be a more ecologically sensitive source of feedstock for rayon production, the rayon itself is not distinguishable from rayon produced from any other feedstock, and uses a lot of toxic chemicals in the process. So while the bamboo itself may be considered environmentally friendly, the production of rayon is not, and the public should not be misled into thinking that the bamboo derived fiber can be considered “natural” – it is clearly synthetic. There are a lot of misconceptions about the “natural” label too, whether it is related to food or textile products.”

Where to Buy Soy Memory Foam Mattresses?

Soy memory foam mattresses have been seen on QVC in the U.S. and The Shopping Channel in Canada. Many brands sell soy memory foam mattresses. Chances are your local store probably has a bio memory foam brand. It may also be marketed under plant-based mattress, biofoam, eco foam mattress or eco-friendly memory foam mattress.

The foam industry is very small. There are only a handful of companies in the USA making polyurethane foams and memory foam. Almost all mattress companies buys from one of these manufacturers or import foam from Europe or China. The rest is marketing.

If you made it this far, well done. You’re now a little more equipped when the mattress salespersons says to you “it’s a soy memory foam mattress”. If you want a true, natural memory foam mattress check us out.

For more information, please visit our Learning Center.

Dental Hygiene Recipes


Did you know that you can make your own coconut oil toothpaste with just a few simple ingredients that you have in your kitchen?
Not only is coconut oil toothpaste effective, with it you can avoid all of the chemicals and toxic ingredients in commercial toothpaste and save money!
I started making my own toothpaste a little over a year ago after discovering a few  ingredients in a “natural” toothpaste that I wasn’t comfortable using.  This toothpaste is a great alternative and is very easy to make!

Ingredients to Watch Out for In Toothpaste baking-soda-toothpaste
All commercial toothpaste contain harmful and toxic ingredients, such as; titanium dioxide, FD&C Blue Dye # 1 & 2, sodium lauryl sulfate, and sodium fluoride. These ingredients can also be found in toothpaste that is labeled “all natural”, particularly sodium fluoride. These chemicals are not only harmful to your delicate tooth enamel, they also affect your overall health! Glycerin is another ingredient to be cautious of as it can inhibit remineralization of teeth. It is often an ingredient in fluoride-free toothpaste as well.
How Coconut Oil Toothpaste Works
Coconut oil is antibacterial, antimicrobial, and antifungal! Studies have shown that coconut oil destroys the bacteria that can cause tooth decay. The other primary ingredient in this toothpaste is baking soda. Baking soda is a very mild abrasive which aids in cleaning and whitening teeth, and restoring pH balance.

Homemade Baking Soda and Coconut Oil Toothpaste Ingredients:
•    2 tablespoons Coconut Oil
•    2 tablespoons Baking Soda
•    10 drops of Peppermint oil (optional)
*You can make a larger or smaller batch depending on how long you would like it to last and what size container you’re storing it in.
1. Mix baking soda and coconut oil in a small container, until it forms a paste like consistency
2. Add several drops of peppermint oil and mix (*peppermint is optional)

simply a wonderful page of dental hygiene during medieval era  ….


Dental Hygiene Recipes and Suggestions

Water Rinse

Hildegarde of Bingen, Physica, 1158 (German)
“One who wishes to have hard, healthy teeth should take pure, cold water into his mouth in the morning, when he gets out of bed. He should hold it for a little while in his mouth so that the mucus around his teeth become soft, and so this water might wash his teeth. If he does this often, the mucus around his teeth will not increase, and his teeth will remain healthy. Since the mucus adheres to the teeth during sleep,  when the person rises from sleep he should clean them with cold water, which cleans teeth better than warm water. Warm water makes them more fragile.” (Book 2, Section 2]
Provided is a goblet and pitcher of cold water.

What happened when I tried it?

I took a mouthfull of cold water immediately upon getting up, and swished it around the mouth until it warmed up a bit (1-2 minutes), then spat it out. My mouth certainly felt less gunky and some of the early-morning buildup appeared to be gone.

Would it work?
Bearing in mind that people in the middle ages and Renaissance seldom if ever drank plain cold water, a quick morning rinse might well remove some of the tartar and bacteria that attack the teeth. Holding cold water in the mouth for a few minutes, swishing it around and spitting it out, certainly leaves the mouth feeling cleaner, especially when done first thing upon awakening. It would certainly loosen stuck particles of food adhering to the teeth.

Wine Rinse and Herb chewing

Trotula, 11th Century, On Women’s Cosmetics (book 3)
“The woman should wash her mouth after dinner with very good wine. Then she ought to dry [her teeth] very well and wipe [them] with a new white cloth. Finally, let her chew each day fennel or lovage or parsley, which is better to chew because it gives off a good smell and cleans good gums and makes the teeth very white.”
Provided is a [empty] goblet of which would hold white wine, a white cloth for polishing the teeth, and green herbs to chew.

White wine was my choice because in the few instances where type is specified in other tooth care items I’ve looked at, it has been white. Fennel and Parsley are included because that is what is available fresh at this time of year. Lovage, a slightly soapy tasting relative of celery, is not commercially available. All of these have seeds, but I choose to go with the fresh plant material since parsley is generally the herb, and I generalized from there that lovage and fennel would also be the herbs rather than seed.

What happened when I tried it?
Rinsing out the mouth with wine loosened some particles of food, and certainly left the mouth feeling less gunky– but this might have been influenced by the use of a white wine. I suspect the percieved cleaning effect varies depending on how dry the wine is. Rubbing the teeth with the cloth removed more tartar and food particles. Chewing either fennel or parsely made the mouth smell of those herbs, not of the previously consumed food.

Would it work?
Essentially, you are washing the mouth out with an alcohol (though slightly sweet alcohol) and chewing green herbs that are high in chlorophyll. It has been established for years that chlorophyll is what allows parsley to kill bad breath and fishy or garlic breath. Fennel and lovage would also add a spicy scent to the breath. So the wine might kill some bacteria and loosen stuck food, and the chlorophyll would help with any bad breath.

Mint mouthwash

Bankes’ Herbal, 1525
“For the stinking of the mouth and filth of the gums and of the teeth, wash thy mouth and gums with vinegar that mints have been sodden in; after that, rub them with the powder of mints or with dry mints.”
1 pint jar filled with mint sprigs (Mentha Citrata, orange bergamot mint)
1 pint red wine vinegar
Vinegar was poured over the mint and left to steep all winter; for use, the vinegar is poured off and used to rinse the mouth.

Finely cut dried mint is provided to rub the teeth with.

I used Mentha citrata because that was what I happened to have a lot of. Mentha citrata is not the North American Bergamot, but a variety of plain European mint that is carries a whiff of the bergamot citrus fruit. While I can’t document that this particular variety existed in Europe before 1601, its existence as a cultivar is quite possible. Walafrid of Strabo (9th century) points out how vigorously mint hybridizes: “Mint. . . in all its varieties. How many there are I might as well try to count the sparks from Vulcan’s furnace beneath Etna.”

Mint’s action against halitosis and indigestion was well known to period herbalists and appears again and again. It’s also associated with eating, as in Ovid where someone rubs the table with the herb before setting the table for dinner .

What happened when I tried it?
Oh, my mouth felt clean all right! I had to rinse with water after ward to remove the tart taste. I don’t know that it reduced the tartar content, but I certainly felt that I had killed the germs that caused bad breath. I smelled strongly of mint vinegar for about 15 minutes at least afterward.

Would it work?
The acidic nature of the vinegar might discourage some bacteria as well as eating into tartar a bit, and the minty flavor would refresh; the gums might also help in cases of gum sores and gum disease. Rubbing the teeth with anything would also help remove accumulated sugars and gunk.

Wine washes and tooth rubbing

Gilbertus Anglicus, [England], 11th century
“. . . let the mouth be washed with wine that birch or mint has simmered in. And let the gums be well rubbed with a sharp linen cloth until they bleed. And let him eat marjoram, mint, and pellitory, til they are well chewed. And let him rub well his teeth with the chewed herbs and also his gums. . . .
And let him drink every evening wine that hyssop, or cinnamon, or spike, or quibibis (fruit of Piperaceae, Piper cubeba) has simmered in.. . And after every meal, let him wash well his mouth and rub well his gums and his teeth so that no corrupt matter abides among the teeth.”
Redaction #1: Mint wine [in deference to site policies, this wine is with the Brewing entries across the street]
6 sprigs of fresh spearmint/garden mint about 3-4″ long, with about 40 leaves between them.
2.5 cups white wine
Simmered until all the mint is light brown in color, then poured into a container and allowed to steep.

Redaction #2: Mint wine
[in deference to site policies, this wine is with the Brewing entries across the street]
2 tablespoons of dried peppermint
1 cup white wine
Simmered for half an hour and set aside to cool.

The dried mixture came out more flavored, but I think the fresh version might be more chemically active.

Herb Chew/Rub:
Fresh marjoram and mint, equal parts

Just to make the instructions complete, I include here a paste made of marjoram and mint. Unfortunately, you cannot obtain pellitory commercially, and my pellitory-of-the-wall plant has not come back this spring. Rather than leaving the judges to masticate their own, I’ve combined equal parts of the fresh leaves in a mortar and pestle.

Gerard says, “Sweet marjerome is a remedy against cold diseases of the braine and head, being taken any way to your best liking,.. the leaves are excellent good to be put into all odoriferous ointments, waters, pouders, broths and meates” and combined with the mint (whose digestive properties are covered above)

Redaction: After-dinner wine [in deference to site policies, this wine is with the Brewing entries across the street]
1 tablespoons of cinnamon (cassia) chips or one cinnamon stick
1.5 cups of red wine
Simmered for 20 minutes

I used red wine mostly as an alternative to the white, though it also seemed more of an after-dinner drink. Of the four possible additives (hyssop, cinnamon, spike, or cubebs) I chose cinnamon/cassia as the most like a hypocras (after-dinner mulled wine) spice by itself. All of those period herbs/spices were considered heating and astringent.
I used cassia (the type of ‘cinnamon’ sold in American stores) instead of true cinnamon because that was what I had available; I probably would have used a larger quantity of cinnamon had I used that instead of cassia.

This left a harsh tasting wine, but the quality of the wine seems to be more indicative of the product than the presence of cinnamon.

What happened when I tried it?

Rinsing with the mint wine and rubbing with a cloth made my teeth feel cleaner and less gummy. The faint odor of the mint lingered for a few minutes. Chewing the herbs made my breath sweeter. Rubbing them on my teeth caused some of the green to stain the teeth, though, but it eased some of the soreness of the rubbed gums. The After-dinner wine didn’t seem to do much, but rinsing the teeth and rubbing them felt significantly like modern toothbrushing.

Would this work?
Rinsing the mouth with alcohol, especially combined with an herb known to combat digestive illness and halitosis, would be a good first step in cleaning the teeth. Rubbing the teeth with a high chlorophyll, low sugar paste would also remove stuck food and buildup, and help with bad breath, and the recommendations to clean the teeth and to finish meals with wine with antiseptic spices might well cut down the buildup and disrupt the lives of bacteria in the mouth.

Rosemary Charcoal Rub

Bankes’ Herbal, 1525 [English]
“Also take the timber thereof [rosemary] and burn it to coals and make powder thereof and put it into a linen cloth and rub thy teeth therewith, and if there be any worms therein, it shall slay them and keep thy teeth from all evils.”
I burned about a small plant’s worth of dried rosemary stems, and wrapped the remains in a piece of linen. For convenience, I’ve drawn this package tight with a piece of string, though the original users probably simply made a twist in the fabric. It didn’t seem reasonable to sew this closed or make a permanent rubber in any way, since the damp ash/charcoal would probably be discarded.

Burning rosemary is a long and ardous process: I finished it by browning the remaining sticks in an iron pan on the stovetop! I suspect using the actual wood from the trunk of a more mature rosemary bush would be better.

Rosemary charcoal is also used in a mixture of rosemary charcoal and ‘burnt alum’ to be rubbed on the teeth that appears in Plat’s Delightes for Ladies, originally published 1602. The author of Banckes’ Herbal, as well as other herbalists, had great faith in rosemary’s “worth against all evils in the body.”

What happened when I tried it?
As when the teeth are rubbed with a regular cloth, some of the gunk came off on the teeth. The charcoal inside did add to the abrasiveness. The ashy taste was not exceedingly pleasant, but the wet bundle of ash did make a decent rubber and tasted better than regular wood ash.

Would it work?
The ashes would certainly help change the pH of the mouth temporarily; also, the rosemary is somewhat antiseptic, though burnt it would have lost most of its essential oil. As in the other cases, the best benefit of this recipe would come from rubbing the teeth with the cloth and the slightly abrasive charcoal.

Sage tooth whitening scrub

Gervase Markham, The English Housewife. 1615

“For teeth that are yellow:
Take sage and salt, of each alike, and stamp them well together, then bake till it be hard, and make a fine powder thereof, then therewith rub the teeth evening and morning and it will take away all yellowness.”
I wasn’t sure whether the sage should be fresh or dried, so I tried it both ways. I also wasn’t sure if ‘of each alike’ meant equal volumes or equal weights.

Redaction: Mixture #1
1 quarter cup of dried sage leaves, firmly packed.
1 quarter cup of seal salt
Ground together in a mortar until combined into a sort of green salt mixture, spread on a baking sheet and heated at 300 degrees Fahrenheit for 45 minutes, and 350 for 30 minutes

The mixture never showed any sign of hardening. The mixture did make a strong, bitter/astringent tooth powder though, when I tried it.

Redaction: Mixture #2
60 fresh (small) sage leaves
2 tablespoons sea salt
I beat the sage leaves into the salt in groups of 10-20 leaves, adding sufficient leaves to form a rather dry paste. More sage and less salt would have formed a thicker paste; I may try that next time. When spread on a baking sheet baked for 20 minutes in a 300 degree oven, it did form a hard crust. I left it in the oven overnight to dry, crumbled it up, and stored it in a container.

From the results, I suspect that equal weights of salt and sage are meant, and that the fresh sage is indicated.

Belief in sage’s antiseptic and healing properties is cited in Banckes’ Herbal:  “It will make a man’s body clean; therefore who that useth to eat of this herb or drink it, it is marvel that any inconvenience should grieve them that use it.”

What happened when I tried it?
I rubbed some on my teeth with a finger, and also tried it with a toothbrush. The effect was similar to toothpaste, though a bit mouth-puckering. Certainly, gunk was removed from the teeth and the breath was fresher; the mouth (after rinsing) felt cleaner too!

Would this work?
Salt is one of the common alternative tooth brushing powders suggested in modern texts, and its granular nature would help polish the teeth. The chlorophyll in green herbs such as sage freshen the breath, and sage is a somewhat astringent/antiseptic, so it might promote gum health and discourage bacteria growth. It certainly worked fine as a tooth powder.

Breath freshening powder

Gilbertus Anglicus, about 1400, English
“And let him use this powder: Take of pepper, one ounce; and of mint, as much; and of rock salt, as much. And make him to chew this powder a good while in his mouth, and then swallow it down.”
1 oz pepper
1 oz dried peppermint leaves, ground
1 oz kosher salt
Mixed together.

I chose to use dried peppermint because a powder is indicated. This recipe created a lot more than could be concievably used at one sitting, so I suspect a spoonful or less, chewed and swallowed, is indicated.

What happened when I tried it?
This recipe produces a spicy, hot tasting, slightly abrasive chew, which certainly makes the mouth feel fresher. I didn’t think my teeth were markedly cleaned, though.

Would it work?
The salt, the essential oil in the peppermint and the almost caustic oil of the pepper would combine to make the mouth at least temporarily hostile to bacteria. It would also give the patient a temporarily positive breath smell, and chewing the salt might loosen some food particles.

Spice Balls

Gilbertus Anglicus, 15th century, English
“And let him use these pills that are good for all manner of stinking of the mouth: Take of cloves, nutmeg, cinnamon and mace, eight drams; of red sandlewood, ten drams; of quibibis, seven drams; of cardamom, five drams. Mix them with the juice of mint and make pills of the size of a fig. And let him to have two of them under either side of his tongue at once.”

One (modern) dram is a little over a teaspoon, so I cut the recipe down significantly:

1 tsp. Saunders (red Sandalwood)
3/4 teaspoon Cinnamon
3/4 teaspoon Mace
3/4 teaspoon Cloves
3/4 teaspoon  Nutmeg
scant 3/4 teaspoon  Cubebs
1/2 teaspoon Cardamom
1-2 bunches mint
The other spices were ground and combined.
The Mint was macerated in a food processor and the juice strained through a muslin bag to wet the spices. The resulting paste was rolled into balls about the size of a dime, which were really too big to fit two under the tongue, but smaller than figs. I’m not sure how the original author would fit two fig sized balls under the tongue– perhaps he was thinking of raisins.

What happened when I tried it?
I tried putting one pea sized ball under one side of my tongue. There was a certain amount of burning sensation caused by the hot spices, but the breath was noticeably sweet!

Would it work?
The patient would certainly have breath that smelled of spices and the essential oils of the spices could well disrupt the life cycles of bacteria that cause bad breath either in the mouth, sinuses or stomach. Both Spices and mint were believed to promote digestion, and good digestion was believed by all authors to assist with bad breath. I’m unclear on the reason for including red sandalwood– it’s a food coloring and the modern stuff has no smell of its own, but would stain the inside of teeth a bit. It doesn’t produce the tartar-test red effect, because sandalwood isn’t soluble in water, just in alcohol.

Women’s Breath freshener

Trotula, 11th Century, On Women’s Cosmetics (book 3)

“I saw a  certain Saracen woman liberate many people with this medicine. Take  little bit of laurel leaves, and a little bit of musk, and let her hold it under the tongue before bad break is perceived in her. When I recommend that day and night and especially when she has to have sexual intercourse with anyone she hold these things under her tongue.”


Provided are 3 redactions:

  • fresh bay leaves (to try)
  • a bay leaf treated with musk fragrance (to smell)
  • some bay leaves soaked in orange-flower water (to smell or try)

A laurel leaf is in fact a leaf of the bay laurel, called ‘bay leaves’. A piece of bay leaf about 1 cm square seems to be the most manageable and comfortable size, especially if it is to be kept in place during vigorous exercise.

Natural musk is an animal product, in texture similar to an oleoresin. However, since we now consider it cruel to slaughter deer simply for the contents of the glands in their buttocks, the real thing is no longer available. In Australia, musk flavored Lifesavers are available, but I was unable to find musk food-flavoring here in the US. So I had to settle for a non-foodsafe synthetic musk fragrance
oil, Jakarta Musk, and mix it with the bay by anointing the leaf with it.

Kirel from the SCA-Cooks list suggested that the flavor of musk is in the same category as orangeflower water. So I’ve also soaked a bay leaf in some orange-flower water. My experience of medieval and renaissance recipes is that musk is generally used more for scent than for medicinal properties, so this substitution would not likely decrease any medical properties. Orange-flower water is mentioned in the Manual de Mugeres, a Spanish text, so while it might not have been available to the original readers of Trotula, it would be available in the Mediterranean later on, and used for perfuming purposes.

What happened when I tried it?

When I tried keeping the bay leaf alone under my tongue, it didn’t give off much smell. In an attempt to increase the odor, I chewed on it a bit. However, the essential oil of bay thus realized burns the mouth, so I don’t recommend it. I believe that the breaking of the fresh leaf should be enough damage to the leaf to release the oils. I wouldn’t recommend keeping the bay leaf under the tongue for any long period of time, though,  since oil of bay in large concentrations can be toxic.

Would this work?
Bay oil is a considered antiseptic by essential oil specialists, and also has a pronounced scent.  It might stop the bacteria causing the smell. The sweetish scent of musk would also overpower any nasty smells, and, as the author suggests, is also associated with sexual pheromones. [The use of musk in Australian LifeSavers candy suggests that they, at least, consider it a positive breath scent.]

Tooth-whitening wash

Markham. The English Housewife, 1615.

“To make teeth white.
Take a saucer of strong vinegar, and two spoonsful of the powder of roche alume, a spoonful of white salt, and a spoonful of honey: seethe all these till it be as thin as water, then put it into a close vial and keep it, and when occasion serves wash your teeth therewith, with a rough cloth, and rub them soundly, but not to bleed.”

1/2 cup red wine vinegar
2 tsp. pickling alum
1 tsp. white salt
1 tsp. honey

Heated together until incorporated, then simmered about 5 minutes longer.

Alum or burnt alum appears with regularity in recipes for mouth- and tooth- cleaning, as well as in some 19th century household aids recipes. For instance, burnt alum is in a recipe in Plat’s Delightes for Ladies.  Some forms of alum, when exposed to water, are supposed to form a weak sulfuric acid,  so this mixture is probably not very safe to use on mucous membranes, like the inside of  the mouth. Certainly, the pickling alum bottle warns that it tastes sour when dry but in pickling solution becomes neutral– so I tested a tiny bit on the tip of my tongue and was rewarded with a significant burning sensation. I used pickling alum since Mistress Anne Liese’s dyeing website suggests that it is most likely to be the period form of alum.

The teaspoon measure of the alum, salt, and honey may have been too small, and perhaps the 1/2 cup of vinegar too big, though 1/2 cup fit just right into one of the modern saucers I have; as soon as the mixture was incorporated, it was ‘as thin as water’.   I didn’t want to add too much alum to the solution, so I compromised on the teaspoon measure.

The vinegar I used was plain red wine vinegar, 5% acidity; period vinegar would have been rather stronger– 7% to 15% acidity. I was unable to find a stronger vinegar in my local stores and didn’t want to take a chance on adding vinegar concentrate to this particular chemical experiment. I used red wine vinegar because I was too cheap to use white wine  vinegar. Since this is a British recipe and no particular vinegar is specified, cider vinegar might be substituted. (I have no references to cider vinegar, but hard cider was a well known drink in Britain; cider vinegar would have been a by-product of home production of cider.)

What happened when I tried it?
I tried this on my teeth (it’s essentially a strong traditional pickling brine) and found they certainly felt very clean, even days later, compared to the untreated side of the mouth. I suspect this would be a bad thing to use on a regular basis, because of the alum solution.=

Would it work?
Well, this acidic mixture certainly pulled gunk off my teeth and made them feel fresher. It might also kill germs (or at least seriously inconvenience them) because of the acidic nature of the mixture. It might also cause decay of the enamel of the teeth, though.

Anise, Caraway, Fennel Comfits

Idea from Rumpolt, recipe from Plat’s Delightes for Ladies, 1602.
Rumpolt, Ein Neu Kochbuch, 1581.
“Of assorted sugar comfits (as) from the apothecary. . .
2. Anise coated.[with sugar] . . .
6. Caraway coated.
7. Fennel coated.”
1/2 cup each caraway seed, anise seed, fennel seed
Syrup: 1 cup sugar, 1/3 cup water
Water and sugar are mixed together and heated. Once the mixture has combined, the heat is adjusted upwards until the syrup reaches the soft-ball stage, about 240 degrees Fahrenheit. It will be ready when a drop dropped into a glass of water forms a soft ball rather than a splat on the bottom.
Put half of one type of seeds (do one type at a time) into the bottom of a small, round metal bowl. Ladle on one tablespoonful of syrup. Stir quickly with a fork, using a scraping motion. Add the rest of the seeds to this mixture, which will first become a sticky ball and then separate out into smaller sections. Stir and squash until seeds have separated and cooled. Add another spoonful of syrup and repeat. Continue this process until comfits are covered with the appropriate amount of sugar. As the coating gets thicker, you may need to cool the comfits between coats in the freezer or out of doors. Be sure not to let the syrup crystallize– if it does, add water, stir it in, and bring back up to temperature.

These comfits would be served after dinner to clean the breath and combat indigestion and gas. Gerard’s Herbal says of anise seed: “Being chewed it makes the breath sweet.” Of caraway, Gerards’ says “The seed confected, or made with sugar into Comfits, are very good for the stomacke, they helpe digestion, provoke urine, asswage and and dissolve all windinesse; to conclude in a word, they are answerable to Anise seed in operation and virtues.”

Note: the directions used here are more similar to those in Plat’s Delightes for Ladies than to Rumpolt’s. To save space, those instructions have been omitted from this documentation.

What happened when I tried it?
These comfits give the feeling of freshening the breath for 15 minutes or so, up to half an hour. Eating a lot of them seems to alleviate gas as well.

Would it work?
Well, they certainly don’t prevent tooth decay, but all three seeds (anise, caraway, and fennel) have carminative effects, widely commented on by the Renaissance herbalists. Even today, Indian restaurants serve candied seeds of this type to combat indigestion and sweeten the breath. They certainly make my breath fresher when I use them.

Other mouth care information:

The Islamic sources make extensive references to the Prophet using a mouth-cleaning stick, either a toothpick or some sort of scraper. (

The Welsh apparently also had a tooth-care regimen, according to Giraldus Cambrensis’s “Journey through Wales”: “Both sexes take great care of their teeth, more than I have seen in any other country. They are constantly cleaning them with green hazel twigs, and then rubbing them with woollen cloths until they shine like ivory. To protect their teeth they never eat hot food, but only what is cold, tepid, or slightly warm.” (


  • An Herbal [1525] Also known as Banckes’ Herbal. Author unknown, published 1525. Facsimile/transcripted edition, ed. by Larkey & Pyles. (NY: Scholars’ Facsimiles and Reprints, 1941)
  • Genders, Roy. Perfume through the Ages. (New York, Putnam, 1972)
  • Gerard, John. The Herbal, or General History of Plants. (Dover, 1975)
  • Gilbertus Anglicus, Compendium of Medicine, Wellcome MS 537, about 1400 A.D. translated by Susan Wallace. Web:
  • Hildegarde of  Bingen. Hildegard von Bingen’s Physica: the complete English translation of her classic work on Health and Healing.  Trans. from the Latin by Patricia Throop. (Rochester, VT: Healing Arts, 1998).
  • Lawless, Julia. The illustrated encyclopedia of essential oils: the complete guide to the use of oils in aromatherapy and herbalism. (NY: Barnes & Noble, 1995)
  • Manual de mugeres en el qual se contienen muchas y diversas reçeutas muy buenas, 16th century, English translation by Karen Larsdatter, Web
  • Markham, Gervase. The English Housewife: containing the inward and outward virtues which ought to be in a complete woman…, first printed 1615. Published 1986 by McGill-Queen’s University Press, Montreal; edited by Michael R. Best
  • Munson, Jennifer, “Mordants and Metal Dyes,” Anne Liese’s Fibers and Stuff. Web:
  • Ody, Penelope. The Complete Medicinal Herbal. (NY: Dorling Kindersley, 1993)
    “p-dental-care-msg”. Stefan’s Florilegium [computer file]. Accessed March 26, 2003.
  • Plat, Hugh. Delightes for Ladies, originally published 1602, edited by Violet and Hall Trovillion from the 1627 edition. (Herrin, IL: Trovillion Private Press, 1939)
  • Porta, John Baptist. Natural Magick, 1558 and onward, from the 1653 edition. Transcribed by Dr. Laura Balbiani. Web:
  • Rumpolt, Marx. ” Von allerley Zucker Confect,” Ein Neu Kochbuch. 1581. Translation by M. Grasse. Web:
  • Sembera, Kyle. “Evolution and Analysis of the Toothbrush,” Mechanical Advantage, March 2001: 10(3). Online at:
  • Strabo, Walafrid. Hortulus. Translated by Raef Payne. Commentary by Wilfrid Blunt. (Pittsburgh: Hunt Botanical Library, 1966)
  • The Trotula : a medieval compendium of women’s medicine. Trans. and ed. by Monica Green. (Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press, 2001)

Pyorrhea & Gingivitus & Periodontitis



1/  not yet complete, still updating and clarifying

2/  Wikipedia is redirecting searches for “Pyorrhea” to “Periodontitis”.

Pyorrhea (Pus in Gums)


Pyorrhea is a very common periodontal disease that affects gums surrounding the roots of the teeth. It leads to inflammation, irritation and pus in gums further resulting in loosening of teeth. Pyorrhea is the primary cause for tooth loss in adults.
Causes of Pyorrhea:

Pyorrhea is caused by bacterial infection.

Home cure for pyorrhea

Food particles get stuck in crevices between teeth.  When teeth are not brushed properly and regularly, bacteria build up on teeth plaque. Bacteria convert these food particles especially the sugar into acids. These acidic elements putrefy the gums and teeth and induce Pyorrhea like conditions.

Other common causes of Pyorrhea include external injury of teeth and gums, improper use of toothpick and incorrect brushing.

Symptoms of Pyorrhea:

Pus oozing from margins of teeth
Swollen and inflamed gums
Loosened teeth roots.
Sepsis of digestive tract or liver disorders, if pus persists for a longer time.

Pyorrhea (Pus in Gums) cont.

Ayurvedic Cure for Pyorrhoea (Pus in Gums)
Ayurveda Pyorrhoea cureIn ayurveda, pyorrehoea is called as Dantvesha or Putidanta. Pyorrehoea is charecterized by excessive discharges of pus from the roots of gums and teeth. If not cured in the initial stages, this can lead to various diseases. This happens because the patient swallows the pus along with the food and the consumed pus then gets absorbed into the gastro-intestinal system.

The common symptoms of pyorrhoea are as follows

Teeth become loose and start falling one after another
Gum paining and bleeding
Difficulty in chewing solid food ingredients
Foul smell in mouth

The causes of pyorrhea are

Unhygienic oral habits.

For constipation, triphala powder or decoction of it is very useful and must be taken regularly.
The powders of the barks Bakula and Babula are very good and are used as tooth powders.
Dasana Samskara Churna is the most commonly prescribed medicine for pyorrhoea. This is also used as a tooth powder.
Also the gums should be rubbed with Bhadramustadi Gutika.

The twig of Neem tree of Banyan tree should be used for brushing.
Hot water mixed with borax should be used for gargling mouth.

Fruits which are high in Vitamin C should be taken more.
Vegetables like bitter gourd, potato and drumstick are useful.
The things which stick to the roots of teeth should be avoided as far as possible.


Gingivitus & Periodontitis

Wikipedia: Gingivitis is a category of periodontal disease where there is no loss of bone but there is presence of inflammation and bleeding.

Wikipedia:  Periodontitis /ˌpɛrioʊdɒnˈtaɪtɪs/ or pyorrhea /ˌpaɪəˈriə/ is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth’s surfaces, along with an over-aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e., a clinical examination) and by evaluating the patient’s X-ray films (i.e. a radiographic examination), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth.[1] Specialists in the treatment of periodontitis are periodontists; their field is known as “periodontology” or “periodontics”.

Apparently, Gingivitus always precedes Periodontitis


 Gingivitus – how to never get it and how to get rid of it


gingivitus beginning


gingivitus before and after treatment

I helped my body rid my tooth of Gingivitus with a quality wooden tooth stick and hydrogen peroxide.

Get a dropper bottle, fill it with hydrogen peroxide.  Use your quality wooden toothpick to gently lift the skin at the bottom of affected tooth and drop 1 drop of hydrogen peroxide into the the affected area.

Go for a swim in the sea.

And within half an hour, your tooth is on the mend. Keep applying even when you think it is healed.

When you think it is healed, do the following twice a day – once on rising and before retiring for the evening.

ARTICLES of Interest – Links

at a quick glance, the following page looks like a good readperidontal advanced

i have not read any of the below – do  not know if useful







Gum disease affects most people at some time during their life. It is usually caused by a build-up of plaque on teeth. One of the common signs of gum disease is bleeding gums. Different stages of gum disease are gingivitis and periodontitis. Gum disease is usually caused by plaque, a sticky film of bacteria that constantly forms on teeth. If plaque is not removed with thorough daily brushing and cleaning between teeth, gums become irritated and inflamed. The irritated gum tissue can separate from the teeth and form spaces called pockets. Destructive bacteria move into the pockets where they continue to promote irritation. Left untreated, the process can continue until the bone and other tooth-supporting tissues are destroyed. Periodontal disease progresses as the sulcus (pocket or space) between the tooth and gums gets filled with bacteria, plaque, and tartar, causing irritation to the surrounding tissues.  When these irritants remain in the pocket space, they can cause damage to the gums and eventually, the bone that supports the teeth. Gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults.

The different stages of gum disease:


Gingivitis is early gum disease and occurs when dental plaque builds up on teeth, particularly where the gum joins the tooth. The signs of gingivitis are bleeding, redness and swelling of the gum. Gingivitis usually precedes periodontitis.
In the early stage of gingivitis, bacteria in plaque build up, causing the gums to become inflamed and to easily bleed during tooth brushing. Although the gums may be irritated, the teeth are still firmly planted in their sockets. No irreversible bone or other tissue damage has occurred at this stage. When gingivitis is left untreated, it can advance to periodontitis. In a person with periodontitis, the inner layer of the gum and bone pull away from the teeth and form pockets. These small spaces between teeth and gums collect debris and can become infected.


Periodontitis is an advanced gum disease that may occur if gingivitis is not treated. The gum margin – the part of the gum that seals to the tooth, – is weakened and spaces form between the tooth and the gum. These spaces are called ‘periodontal pockets.’ Bacteria and their products become trapped in these pockets causing further inflammation (redness and swelling). Signs of periodontitis include bleeding, swelling and receding gums together with bad breath, a bad taste in the mouth and loose teeth.
Toxins or poisons — produced by the bacteria in plaque as well as the body’s “good” enzymes involved in fighting infections — start to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. When this happens, teeth are no longer anchored in place, they become loose, and tooth loss occurs.

Gingivitis and Periodontics Treatment:
Treatment methods depend upon the type and severity of the disease. If the disease is caught in the early stages of gingivitis, and no damage has been done, one to two regular cleanings will be performed. You will also be given instructions on improving your daily oral hygiene habits and having regular dental cleanings.
If the disease has progressed to more advanced stages, a special periodontal cleaning called scaling and root planing will be performed.  It is usually done one quadrant of the mouth at a time while the area is numb.  In this procedure, tartar, plaque, and toxins are removed from above and below the gum line (scaling) and rough spots on root surfaces are made smooth (planing).  This procedure helps gum tissue to heal and pockets to shrink. If the pockets do not heal after scaling and root planning, periodontal surgery may be needed to reduce pocket depths, making the teeth easier to clean.


the link below is a business, the title of the page hooked me in, and at first glance, curing mentions Coconut Oil and Oregano oil (oregano vulgare), which is sound good sense – read the article, and be a jolly good reader and give some feedback on the article in the comment below.


Periodontal Pockets


Published on May 16, 2013

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Bleeding Gums are a sign of gingivitis and periodontitis. It starts with bad oral bacteria causing plaque and tartar in the mouth. The tartar buildup causes gum pockets to form, which leads to bacterial infection in those gum pockets.

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Bleeding gums can be a result of gum disease as previously mentioned, but it can also be a symptom accompanying canker sores or mouth ulcers which have their own causes aside from gum disease. If bleeding occurs due to a sore in the mouth you will likely notice that the gums are sore, and these can come as single sores or in multiples. Signs that may indicate gum disease or gingivitis may include the following:

Sore gums
Swollen gums
Changes in the way teeth fit together
Formation of deep pockets between the teeth and gums
Gums that bleed during and after brushing teeth
Loose, or shifting teeth
Receding gums

There is much more to consider than just the pain or discomfort associated with the bleeding itself. It can often lead to gum disease. If there is a passageway for blood to exit your tissue, it makes sense that there would be a way for other things to enter the bloodstream. If this is the case, harmful bacteria that are formed in the mouth can gain access to your bloodstream and potentially cause a whole host of health problems. Some of the dangers that can eventually take place are:

Digestive system disorders
Respiratory problems
Higher risk for heart attack or stroke
Pancreatic cancer

The Major Cause of Bleeding Gums – Harmful Bacteria

Bacteria in the mouth can easily grow out of control, especially when proper oral hygiene is not being practiced, or the wrong oral care products are being used. When this happens, the bacteria form plaque, and eventually tartar. This will cause inflammation of the gums, along with swelling and bleeding. Bleeding can also occur as a result of improper flossing. Be careful to allow the floss to slide along the natural curves of the teeth, and do not force it.

Even when brushing and flossing regularly, you may be using products that are causing more harm than good. Commercial toothpastes and mouthwash are filled with potentially harmful ingredients.
Treating Bleeding Gums

We’ve previously discussed how bleeding gums can be related to gum disease, or other natural functions of the body. Here are a few ways to help treat, or control it if you’re suffering:

Establish a good oral hygiene program
Replace your commercial toothpaste and mouthwash with 100% pure oral products.
Eat a well balanced diet
Drink plenty of water
Do not use tobacco products
Be cautious about extremely hot or cold foods and beverages

Teeth Whitening


see also Hydrogen Peroxide & Carbamide Peroxide 

Home Whitening and Maintenance2691320

don’t get the dentist to do it, learn how to do it yourself,  be self-sufficient and KIND to yourself and your teeth!

apart from Oil Pulling   for whitening, there is:ecodent-ultrabrite

Hydrogen Peroxide;  How does Hydrogen Peroxide whiten Teeth?

Black Whitener made in Australia;

and EcoDent ‘Extrabrite’.     made in USA     Read an “Extrabrite” review


Dental Service

dont use this, it has fluride in it





Thermo-forming Trays


whiten teeth  LINKS below whitening





why teeth become yellow (i have not read this article – do not know if it is any good)

see various posts on link below on teeth whitening and teeth whitening services by dentists etc (i do not recommend that you rely on dentists to get your teeth white)