Tag Archives: beodegradable nylon

Bristles: nylon 4 and nylon 6

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I am not liking nylon for bristles. nylon scratches enamel on teeth. does nylon 4 and nylon 6 scratch teeth?  Other nylton bristles do.  If I am going to use a toothbrush, I prefer humanely harvested pig bristle, as it does not wear away the enamel. And importantly, NYLON IS MADE FROM PETROLEUM.

Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a bristle from a used toothbrush. It is covered in dental plaque. used toothbrush microscopePlaque consists of a film of bacteria embedded in a glycoprotein matrix. The matrix is formed from bacterial secretions and saliva. Plaque is the main cause of tooth decay. The bacteria feed on sugars in food, producing acid as a waste product. This acid corrodes the teeth’s enamel coating, resulting in dental caries. A build-up of dental plaque can also lead to inflamed and infected gums. Severe gum disease can lead to teeth falling out.

from Red Ice investigations and research:

Wallace Hume Carothers was an American chemist, inventor and the leader of organic chemistry at DuPont, credited with the invention of nylon. In 1938, DuPont manufactured the first nylon bristle toothbrushes. As of the turn of the Twenty-First Century, nylon had come to be widely used for the bristles. The handles were usually molded from thermoplastic materials.

Nylon is a toxic plastic made from petroleum. What nature provided for humans to clean their teeth with for thousands of years before nylon bristles worked just fine. In fact, many people find their gums bleed brushing with nylon bristles. If you have a cavity or sensitive gums, the last thing you should be doing is scrubbing nylon bristles against your teeth and gums.

 Some eco toothbrushes with nylon bristles:

Nylon 4:   Environmental Toothbrush Aust.       Total Clean Eco Toothbrush    Hemp Embassy Melting Pot

Nylon 6:   Brush With Bamboo 62% Castor Bean Oil, 38% nylon

Nylon:   Preserve     Environmental Toothbrush Aust          Bogobrush


Nylon 4 Bristles:

In activated sludge (sewage) or compost, nylon 4 breaks down in about 3-4 months.

ok, they are biodegradable, what does that mean?

Do they degrade into the soil without harming the soil etc within in reasonably short amount of time.

This article talks about biodegradability of plastics


NYLON 4

Is Nylon 4 biodegradable?:

Nylon 4 is a synthetic polymer, that has been shown to be vulnerable to bacterial activity specifically Pseudomonas strain ND-11. In activated sludge (sewage) or compost, nylon 4 breaks down in about 3-4 months.

Below are some links to research and articles, relating to the ability of nylon 4 to biodegrade:

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2769161/

http://polychem3.webs.com/application.htm

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0141391010001515

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, which states that Nylon 4 — the material from which the bristles happen to be made — is also biodegradable in soil:

9.2. Nylon 4
It has been reported that nylon 4 was degraded in the soil [88] and in the activated sludge [89]. The results confirmed that Nylon 4 is readily degradable in the environment. Furthermore, the biodegradability of nylon 4 and nylon 6 blends was investigated in compost and activated sludge. The nylon 4 in the blend was completely degraded in 4 months while nylon 6 was not degraded [90]. Recently, Yamano et al. was able to isolate polyamide 4 degrading microorganisms (ND-10 and ND-11) from activated sludge. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas sp. The supernatant from the culture broth of strain ND-11 degraded completely the emulsified nylon 4 in 24 h and produced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as degradation product [91].

– See more at: http://myplasticfreelife.com/2011/05/eco-friendly-toothbrush-review-and-giveaway/#sthash.egIHXxqb.dpuf

and from International Journal of Molecular Sciences, on Nylon 4 and Nyton 6:

9. Polyamide (Nylon)

9.1. Nylon 6

Polyamide (nylon) has excellent mechanical and thermal properties, good chemical resistance and low permeability to gases, but it is known to be resistant to degradation in the natural environment. The poor biodegradability of nylon in comparison with aliphatic polyesters is probably due to its strong interchain interactions caused by the hydrogen bonds between molecular chains of nylon. Some microorganisms such as Flavobacterium sp. [85] and Pseudomonas sp. (NK87) [86] have been reported to degrade oligomers of nylon 6, but they cannot degrade nylon 6 polymers. Moreover, some white rot fungal strains were reported to degrade nylon 66 through oxidation processes [87].

9.2. Nylon 4

It has been reported that nylon 4 was degraded in the soil [88] and in the activated sludge [89]. The results confirmed that Nylon 4 is readily degradable in the environment. Furthermore, the biodegradability of nylon 4 and nylon 6 blends was investigated in compost and activated sludge. The nylon 4 in the blend was completely degraded in 4 months while nylon 6 was not degraded [90]. Recently, Yamano et al. was able to isolate polyamide 4 degrading microorganisms (ND-10 and ND-11) from activated sludge. The strains were identified as Pseudomonas sp. The supernatant from the culture broth of strain ND-11 degraded completely the emulsified nylon 4 in 24 h and produced γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as degradation product [91].

Generally speaking, degradation of polyamides is still unclear. Thus further investigations on the pathways of degradation are necessary.

 


Brush With Bamboo

aboutbrush2FROM THE WEBISTE:

Brush with Bamboo is the world’s first plant-based toothbrush.

Every component of our product is plant-based: bristles, handle, wrapper, and box.

Brush with Bamboo is a USDA Certified Biobased Product by United States Government’s Biopreferred Program. A purchase of our toothbrush is a vote for biobased products that are not fossil fuel-based!

Our product is BPA-Free, Vegan, and Verified Non-toxic.

Plant-based bristles

This special SOFT bristle is composed of 62% Castor Bean Oil, 38% plastic. (EDITORS ITALICS) This is the latest and most advanced biobased bristle in the world today. It’s biobased, but still not biodegradable. You may have seen Dasani brand plastic water bottles made form 30% plants – our bristle is a similar concept. Prior to the invention of nylon in the 1930s, pig hair was used for toothbrush bristles worldwide. Today, pig hair remains the only biodegradable option – and it is a very controversial material. We hope you’ll support our brand as we “vote” with our supply chain. We’re pushing bristle manufacturers to develop better alternatives to nylon. This new bristle that we are now using is the best available option. t’s not perfect, but it’s a step in the right direction. Our bristles can be recycled – please read further details in the Proper Disposal Section of this website.

 

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